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COMPANY IN NORWAY

Being self-employed is quite a challenge, but at the same time brings with it a number of opportunities. Running a business in Norway involves familiarizing yourself with Norwegian regulations, rates and deadlines that must be followed to avoid business complications. By reviewing this tab, you will learn what you need to keep in mind when running a business in Norway.

WHO SHOULD START A COMPANY IN NORWAY?

Running your own business in Norway has its pros and cons, so it's worth considering whether you're really ready to be self-employed - paperwork, risk and inexperience often keep you from starting a business in Norway.
When starting a company in Norway, first of all, you should choose the legal form that is most appropriate for your situation and your real capabilities - the start can vary, and you can change the scope of the business as it grows
A sole proprietorship in Norway: [Infographic] A sole proprietorship is most suitable for people who: are not going to turn over sizable amounts of money are starting out and are unable to estimate actual profits do not have financial resources]

Another option is to establish a company in Norway - but this requires more money and is more complicated.

[Infographic] [Establishing a company in Norway is most suitable for people who: will be trading large amounts of money will have many employees are able to estimate the company's average profits expect regular orders and investments]

A real plus of running a company in Norway is the ability to communicate in English and sometimes even in Polish, as well as a simple tax and pension system - this makes dealing with paperwork undeniably easier.

Running your own business involves the fact that everything depends on the owner himself - the development, the direction of the business, and ultimately the profits of the company.Therefore, a company in Norway should be established by a person who can devote a lot of time to work, is responsible and dutiful. Before reporting your business to the authorities, it is a good idea to study the Norwegian regulations carefully, so that you are aware of all the rights, obligations and restrictions that are incumbent on entrepreneurs with their own business in Norway.
You can also use the services of our company! The goal of Norway Consulting is to help entrepreneurs who intend to operate or are operating in Norway. Our job is to service your company so that you can devote yourself to the passion of creating a business in one of the richest countries in the world in peace.
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WHAT TYPES OF BUSINESS DO WE HAVE IN NORWAY?

[Infographic] [Types of business in Norway: sole proprietorship (ENK - Enkeltpersonforetak) subsidiary of a foreign company (NUF - Norskregistrert utenlandsk foretak) joint-stock company (AS - Aksjeselskap: ASA - Almennaksjeselskap - limited liability company, DA - Delt Ansvar / ANS - Ansvarlig Selskap - general partnership)]

WHAT TO KNOW ABOUT A SOLE PROPRIETORSHIP IN NORWAY AND HOW TO START ONE?

Enkeltpersonforetak (ENK or EPF), or sole proprietorship, is a very popular solution among entrepreneurs in Norway - it does not require a financial contribution, and it is relatively easy to set up (electronically it takes about 4-6 days).

When deciding on this legal form of business, it is important to remember that the owner of the company is liable with all his assets for its financial obligations - there is no separation between private and company assets.

The owner of an ENK in Norway should pay income tax (22% on the company's profit) and social security fees (11.4% on the company's profit) - after starting the business, the expected income should be declared and on this basis the Norwegian office will calculate advance payments for income tax (payable in four installments: March 15, June 15, September 15 and December 15).

In addition, a turnover of more than NOK 50,000 per year means you have to register for VAT - this involves filing tax returns and paying VAT (25%, 15% or 12%).

Employees in the company

If a company in Norway hires employees, it incurs the associated costs - fixed and variable costs.
Fixed costs
  • Employment levies (Arbeidsgiveravgift),
  • OTP pension insurance,
  • feriepenger.

They account for about 26.3% of the gross salary amount.
Variable costs
  • work clothing,
  • employee training,
  • accident and health insurance,
  • sickness benefits.
They account for an average of 5% of the employee's gross salary.
A business is established by submitting the appropriate applications to the authorities or via altinn.no - it is necessary to have a personal number and MinID codes.

To establish a sole proprietorship online, you need to:

- log in to the Altinn portal (provide a personal number and password),

Jak wygląda logowanie do portalu Altinn? - provide the indicated MinID code,

Podawanie kodu MinID na portalu Altinn. - Open the "Alle skjema" tab,

Otwieranie zakładki Alle skjema na portalu Altinn - search for an application to establish a company (Registrere nye og endre eksisterende foretak og enheter - Samordnet registermelding),

Wyszukiwanie wniosku do założenia firmy na portalu Altinn. - fill out the application correctly.

Jak wygląda wniosek do założenia firmy w Norwegii? A sole proprietorship in Norway can also be established by filling out the appropriate application and sending it to the authority. The application is available here.
Set up a sole proprietorship with us

WHAT TO KNOW ABOUT AS COMPANY IN NORWAY?

Aksjeselskap is a joint-stock company - this type of business requires a minimum financial contribution of NOK 30,000 (which can be fixed assets). The establishment of the company itself is quite complicated and time-consuming (up to four weeks) and involves certain costs (company registration, share capital).

First of all, an AS company means the separation of the owners' assets and the company's assets - one is liable for liabilities up to the maximum amount of equity. It is the duty of the owners to appoint the company's board of directors and conduct its meetings at least once a year. At the same time, entrepreneurs have no financial freedom, as every transaction must be documented. A big plus of establishing a company in Norway is the possibility of self-employment - in this way the owner acquires labor rights such as sick pay, salary, vacation and sick leave, as well as compensation for accidents at work.
Registering an AS company in Norway involves paying a fee of NOK 5,570 or NOK 6,797 (depending on the form of application) for entry in the Register of Companies (www.brreg.no).
Register an AS company with us

WHAT IS WORTH KNOWING ABOUT NUF IN NORWAY?

Norskregistrert utenlandsk foretak, or NUF, is a subsidiary of a foreign company in Norway - orders are carried out in Norway, but the company's headquarters is located in Poland, for example.

[Inforgraphics] [To register a NUF you must register with Brønnøysundregistrene: apply for an organizational number: attach documents regarding the Polish registered office such as: company's charter, articles of incorporation, entry in the register (KRS / CEiDG), address data attach documents pertaining to the Norwegian subsidiary such as: branch name, scope of activities, attorney's data, etc.].
Sometimes you also need to appoint a representative to be responsible for paying tax in Norway (it's worth carefully reviewing the Double Taxation Avoidance Act) - such an arrangement makes it easier to contact Norwegian authorities and deal with any paperwork regarding the company's obligations.
If the branch employs workers, they must be reported to the Sentralskattekontoret for utenlandssaker - the Central Foreign Tax Office - and to the police.

The NUF just like other forms of business becomes a VAT payer when the branch's turnover exceeds NOK 50,000 in a 12-month period.
Establish a subsidiary of your company in Norway (NUF) with us

FIRST STEPS AFTER STARTING A BUSINESS

Registering a business in Norway is only the beginning of the formalities involved in establishing a company. An entrepreneur can set up a business account - confirmation of company registration and a valid passport are required.
When a company's annual turnover in Norway exceeds NOK 50,000, the entrepreneur is required to register the business as a VAT payer - this means filing tax returns and paying VAT.
An entrepreneur in Norway should observe the applicable filing deadlines: It is also important to pay advance income tax payments on time - in four installments.

[Infographic] [Income tax advance installment payment deadlines March 15 May 15 September 15 November 15]

If a company has employees it is necessary to register in the employers' registry (NAV Aa-registeret). When a sole proprietorship has more than five employees or is engaged in trade it is required to register in the commercial register - Foretaksregisteret. The obligation to register in the Foretaksregisteret also applies to all Norwegian companies.

In addition, depending on the industry in which the company operates, one should keep in mind industry charters (byggekort and renholdskort) or mandatory health and safety training.

EMPLOYMENT OF AN EMPLOYEE IN THE COMPANY AND RELATED DUTIES

Business growth involves hiring employees. In Norway, to hire an employee you must:
  1. make an entry in Aa-registeret,
  2. open a Skattetrekkskonto account (account for securing the employee's advance income tax),
  3. conclude a contract with the employee,
  4. report the employee to NAV (by Friday of the following week after the day the contract was signed),
  5. collect Skattekort from the employee (this is the employee's duty - failure to provide the document means that the employee will be charged an advance income tax of 50%),
  6. complete the employee's data with a bank account number (payment of wages is made by bank transfer only),
  7. pay the employee's mandatory pension insurance (OTP) (if the employee works at least 3/4 time).
Hiring employees involves costs that cannot be avoided.
Fixed costs:

  • employee employment fee - 14.1%,
  • pension insurance - 2%,
  • feriepenger - 10.2%.

A total of 26% on the employee's gross salary.
Variable costs: - dependent on the type of activity and include:
  • sick pay (the employer pays for the first 16 days of sick leave),
  • accident and health insurance,
  • training necessary to perform the job.
They account on average for about 5% of the gross salary.
Taxes on employment are Arbeidsgiveravgift (employer's tax - the rate depends on zone membership) and Forskuddstrekk (advance payment of employee income tax).

Feriepenger

Feriepenger is a benefit that every employee is entitled to - vacation leave. The length of the leave is at least 25 days - those over 60 are entitled to an additional week. An employee has the right to give it up if the wages lost during the leave are greater than the accrued benefit.
The amount of feriepenger depends on the employee's total salary (base plus commission) earned in the previous year - this amount also includes sickness and care benefits. In Norway, the feriepenger benefit is a minimum of 10.2% of the earned base, and for those over 60 a minimum of 12.5% of the earned wage base.

Vacation pay is also accrued if benefits are collected: for sickness benefit - the first 48 days, parental benefit - the first 12 or 15 weeks - vacation pay is paid by the employer or the Norwegian Folketrygden (Social Insurance Institution), depending on who paid the employee's benefits.

Unemployed persons are not entitled to receive vacation pay.

COMPANY SECURITY

[Infographic] [Proper attention to safety at work is the subject of health and safety training (HMS), which should be taken by: business owners with at least one employee business owners who outsource tasks to subcontractors managers (daglig Leder) who are responsible for the safety and health of their employees Single-employee companies are exempt from the HMS course].

Due to the nature of work, the activities of some Norwegian companies involve the need to take care of special industry cards - this applies, for example, to cleaning services or construction work. The badges (Renholdskort, Byggekort) are personal and valid for two years from the date of issue, and the cost of obtaining them is always borne by the employer.

The only institution that has the right to issue badges: is Idemia Norway AS (and in previous years it was Oberthur Technologies).

[Infographic] [The identifiers should include the details listed: company name photo of the card owner data of the issuing person (name, surname, address) expiration date data of the owner of the badge (name, surname, date of birth, gender, signature) organizational number (organisasjonsnummer)]
Deadlines for submission of industry documents
Renholdskort The owner should file immediately after registering the company, in the case of an employee - immediately after hiring,
Byggekort The owner should submit it immediately after registering the company, in the case of an employee - immediately after employment.
Companies handling foodstuffs, animals or cosmetics should have a permit from Mattilsynet.

FIXED COSTS IN THE COMPANY

Fixed costs in a Norwegian company are:

  1. rental costs for premises (the premises must be declared as a place of business; if a dwelling is used for business purposes, you can deduct a maximum of NOK 1700 - without having invoices or a proportional value - depending on the area of the dwelling and the area used for business),
  2. company telephone subscription (for a sole proprietorship, telephone deductions are partial - the amount of NOK 4392 is deducted from expenses),
  3. depreciation and expenses related to the use of a car (cars are depreciated for several years in a row, any expenses related to the use of a car for business purposes are a company expense),
  4. hiring employees (employees place a significant financial burden on the company - the employer has many obligations to them, so the profitability of hiring an employee must be recalculated).
Costs vary depending on the type of business and the scope of services provided by a given company - one must remember the obligation to prove the reasonableness of the costs incurred
The calculation of company costs in Norway is done with the help of cost invoices - you should carefully check the correctness of the data contained in the invoices issued by suppliers or vendors. It is also worth checking the correctness of the entrepreneur's company details - they should clearly indicate the buyer's company, as well as the correctness of the amounts appearing on the invoice - the gross amount (the sum of the net amount and VAT) and the appropriate amount of VAT charged.

VARIABLE COSTS IN THE COMPANY

Variable costs in a Norwegian company are:

  1. materials / goods (necessary to generate revenue),
  2. tools / equipment (purchases over NOK 15,000 are accounted for several years in a row - the depreciation rate depends on the type of equipment),
  3. travel expenses, per diem (expenses should be documented, working more than twelve hours a day means that NOK 89 per day can be deducted),
  4. representation costs (in order for the office not to question the deductions, it should be clearly indicated on the bill for what purpose the meeting was held - VAT cannot be deducted from such costs),
  5. advertising (business cards, online or newspaper ads, flyers),
  6. office supplies (computers, scanners, printers),
  7. training, licensing and authorization costs (training in the scope of services provided, purchase of professional literature, fees for obtaining industry cards - Byggekort, Renholdskort).
Costs vary depending on the type of business and the scope of services provided by a given company - one must remember the obligation to prove the reasonableness of the costs incurred.
The calculation of company costs in Norway is done with the help of cost invoices - you should carefully check the correctness of the data contained in the invoices issued by suppliers or vendors. It is also worth checking the correctness of the entrepreneur's company details - they should clearly indicate the buyer's company, as well as the correctness of the amounts appearing on the invoice - the gross amount (the sum of the net amount and VAT) and the appropriate amount of VAT charged.

VAT IN THE COMPANY

A company whose turnover exceeds NOK 50,000 in 12 consecutive months becomes a VAT payer in Norway. The NOK 50,000 limit counts from the start of invoicing for the next 12 months - after that time, the limit resets to zero. When the company is not based in Norway, it should be registered by a representative who lives or operates in Norway

VAT in Norway is divided into three rates:

After becoming a VAT payer, the company marks its invoices differently - the abbreviation MVA is added, and the appropriate tax rate is added to each good or service.

Norwegian VAT is settled on the basis of a tax return, in which the company shows all costs and revenues - the return is submitted electronically at www.altinn.no.

[Infographic] [The tax return is submitted by the deadlines set by the Norwegian office: April 10 for January, February June 10 for March, April August 31 for May, June October 10 for July, August December 10 for September, October February 10 of the following year for November, December 2019/20]

When importing goods, VAT-registered payers settle the supplies through a tax return - the obligation to calculate and settle the tax rests with the respective company.

When preparing the VAT report, one should take into account account account statements (for a given period of time - accountskrifter), invoices issued by the company (revenue invoices), costs incurred during the period (invoices and receipts) and other documents (vehicle card or premises rental agreement).
To register a company in the VAT Taxpayer Register - Merverdiavgiftsregisteret - one must fill out and electronically submit the form available at www.altinn.no. You can also submit a paper version of the document - form BR-1010 (second part) directly to your local tax office (skattekontoret) or Enhetsregisteret.
Businesses registered for VAT in Norway are required to keep their accounts in accordance with Norwegian regulations (Accounting Act of November 19, 2004 No. 73, VAT Act) - the business is required to pay sales tax on goods and services.

Foreign companies (NUF) can deduct VAT charged by customs and that charged when purchasing goods for use in the business. Foreign entrepreneurs are required to file sales statements (omsetningsoppgaver) and pay tax in Norway on time.

INCOME TAX AND INVOICING OBLIGATION

Every company is required to pay income tax of 22% on the company's profit - tax thresholds in Norway have been set, and the amount of tax increases with the company's income.
The tax thresholds in Norway for 2021 are:
  • up to NOK 184,800 - 22%,
  • from 184,800 NOK to 260,100 NOK the surplus is multiplied additionally by 1.7%,
  • from 260,100 NOK to 651,250 NOK the surplus is multiplied additionally by 4%,
  • from NOK 651,250 to NOK 1,021,550 the surplus is multiplied by an additional 13.2%,
  • from 1,021,550 NOK the surplus is multiplied additionally by 16.2%.
An entrepreneur in Norway should calculate the expected amount of profit and provide it in the tax return (either after the start of the business or at the beginning of the calendar year) - the company pays advance income tax (payable in four installments: March 15, June 15, September 15 and December 15), and by May 31 of the following year the entrepreneur is required to file a tax return.

Invoices can be issued by any company registered with Brønnøysundregistrene (www.brreg.no) - it must have a Norwegian organizational number and a company bank account number.

A Norwegian invoice should include:

  1. invoice number (numbering regardless of the passage of time is continuous).
  2. the organizational number (assigned by Brønnnøysundregistrene - www.brreg.no; when the company is a VAT payer, add MVA at the end),
  3. invoice date,
  4. date of payment of the invoice,
  5. seller's data,
  6. buyer's data,
  7. description of goods, services,
  8. price (VAT payers enter net price and VAT amount),
  9. bank account number (if the company trades in cash, it is required to keep a cash register and make appropriate reports),
  10. additional information (e.g. customer number).
When an invoice has been issued incorrectly, it must be corrected with a kreditnot - a correction invoice.

An entrepreneur in Norway can issue zero invoices (VAT 0%) if the company's turnover in the following 12 months has not exceeded NOK 50,000.

SOCIAL BENEFITS FROM NAV

An entrepreneur running his own business in Norway is entitled to a number of social benefits, such as sick pay and maternity pay.

Maternity benefit

Maternity benefit in Norway is available to women who have worked for a minimum of six months in the past ten months and whose income has reached a level on which pension contributions have been paid - at the same time, the income must be at least half the amount (grunnbeløp) set by NAV.

Sick leave benefit

While the owner of a sole proprietorship in Norway is on sick leave, the company is not allowed to have income, and only fixed costs such as rent or phone bill are accepted from expenses. The exception is the 50% exemption - the company is allowed to have income for work that is not prohibited by the exemption issued, such as office work.

The amount of sickness benefit depends on the person's income base from the previous year - it is paid by NAV from the 17th day of release (at 75% of average income).

[Infographic] [Entrepreneurs have the option to purchase additional insurance from NAV, which provides sick pay from the first day of sick leave at an increased rate: 75% (from the first day of illness - in the amount of 75% of average income) 100% (from the seventeenth day of illness - in the amount of 100% of average income) 100% (from the first day of illness - at 100% of average income)].

If you want to fully enjoy Norwegian benefits, you can be employed by your own company (this applies only to companies in Norway) - the employed entrepreneur acquires the status of an employee and the rights associated with it: salary, annual leave or compensation for a possible work accident.

HOW TO PROCEED IN CASE OF NON-PAYMENT FOR THE SERVICE?

When a counterparty defaults - fails to pay for goods or services, a Norwegian company can take two types of action:
  • wait until the customer settles the payment (in such a situation, the company pays taxes on the invoice),
  • apply for payment through official channels.
Inkassovarsel is a demand for payment, which usually precedes a referral to a debt collection company or to court. Inkassovarsel requires a deadline for repayment of the debt (a minimum of 14 days) and the total amount owed.

The company does not have to send reminders, but in order to take the case to court, it is necessary to send the debtor inkassovarsel - a summons for payment - beforehand. If the entrepreneur decides to send reminders, he can use purring, i.e. a reminder after the due date - in case of a subsequent reminder, fees for non-payment are added to the amount of the debt - purregebyr (more information is available here).

[Infographic] [Demanding repayment for an unpaid invoice can involve: sending purring reminders and, as a last resort, incassovarsel, waiting 14 days from the date of payment of the invoice and sending incassovarsel, the final step is to send betalingsoppfordring - a demand for payment (within at least 14 days after sending inkassovarsel)].

It is also possible to enlist the help of forliksrådet, the Norwegian Arbitration and Conciliation Board, which handles cases involving debts for goods and services - the case should be filed with the municipality where the debtor lives or does business.

GRANT FOR STARTING A BUSINESS

Although starting a business in Norway in itself does not require a sizable financial outlay, it often involves additional costs - buying equipment, machinery, renting premises, etc. If the start-up costs exceed your real possibilities, it is worth considering subsidies for companies in Norway.

In Norway, banks provide funding in the form of a loan or lease - they most often support small and medium-sized businesses. You can also approach the municipality where the entrepreneur lives or intends to operate - municipalities often have funds to support business in Norway.

Another solution is to take advantage of NAV funding - the office supports associations and foundations, social entrepreneurship, various types of projects and training.
Interestingly, unemployed people who do not lose their entitlement to benefits for 12 months after setting up a business can also apply for the subsidy - you only have to apply to keep your benefits once you receive them under the normal rules

In order not to lose the benefit, you must:

Those sent on permittering and those who have been laid off without a demonstrated valid reason are not entitled to this form of assistance.

When looking for help, it is worth turning to Innovasjon Norge - this is an organization that provides loans, credits and grants to companies. Innovasjon Norge supports companies in Norway, regardless of their field of activity, and the amount of funding awarded depends on the companies' financial capacity and their stated goal.
FAQ

FORMALITIES:


1. How to establish a company in Norway?

In order to establish a company in Norway, you must fill out the Samordnet registermelding BR1010 form found at www.brreg.no - it is necessary to enter, among other things, the owner's data, company name, company address and type of business. Once the application is submitted and the company registration is confirmed, an organizational number is assigned. The next step is to set up an optional company bank account (you must have confirmation of business registration and the company's organizational number). Once the company starts operations in Norway, the entrepreneur should declare the expected income, on the basis of which the Norwegian office will calculate advance income tax. In addition, if the company's income within 12 months exceeds NOK 50,000, it must be registered as a VAT payer.

2. How to establish a company in Norway?

In order to register a company in Norway, in addition to filling out an application, you need to complete a number of necessary documents, including the opening balance sheet, articles of association and minutes of the meeting. An AS company in Norway requires payment of equity with a minimum value of NOK 30,000 - without confirmation of payment of share capital, the application for business registration will not be accepted. It is possible to establish a company without paying up initial capital - this is Ansvarlig selskap (ANS/DA).

3. What conditions should ANS and DA companies meet in Norway?

- The company should be established in the territory of Norway,
- the main branch of the company should be located in the territory of Norway,
- company regulations should be included in selskaploven,
- partners should conclude a liability level agreement (selskapaytale),
- the company should have a minimum of two partners,
- DA company does not require initial capital,
- the appointment of a supervisory board is not regulated by law,
- the company should be registered with Foretaksregisteret.

4. How to distinguish a DA company from an ANS?

Norwegian ANS and DA companies are similar to limited liability companies - at least one of the shareholders is responsible for financial obligations. The difference between the two is related to the division of liability - in an ANS company, liability is divided equally between the shareholders, liability in a DA company is regulated by an agreement between them.

5. How much does it cost to establish an AS company in Norway?

Establishing an AS company in Norway involves the obligation to have initial capital - NOK 30,000, which can be in the form of fixed assets. The fee for entry in Foretaksregisteret is NOK 5,570 (electronically) or NOK 6,797 (paper application). Add to the basic costs the cost of bookkeeping services in Norway, incorporation and board meeting minutes, and the cost of various forms - fixed asset protocol, making D-nummer. In total, these expenses can reach up to NOK 15,000.

6. How long do the formalities for establishing a company in Norway take?

Formalities for setting up a company in Norway usually take between 5 days and 6 weeks (this depends on whether the application was sent by mail or electronically through the Altinn.no portal).

7. What do you need an organizational number for?

The organizational number is the equivalent of the Polish NIP in Norway - it is assigned to sole proprietorships and legal entities and is used in administrative matters - taxes, insurance premiums. The organizational number is also found on invoices issued by the company, and banks and financial institutions require it, for example, to open a company account.

8. How is a tax identification number assigned?

In order to be assigned a tax identification number, you must have a source of regular income in Norway or come with a parent or spouse who works in Norway. When registering a company, along with the company registration application, you must fill out a form (here) and send it to Brønnøysundregistrene.

9. How do I change the address of a sole proprietorship in Norway?

To change the company details you need the Samordnet registermelding form BR1010 from the Brønnøysundregistrene website:
- box 1.1 - enter the name and organizational number,
- Box 2.2 - indicate that a change will be made,
- Box 4 - indicate the new address,
- Box 18 - enter the date and sign.
The completed application is sent to the office - the change can also be made electronically through the Altinn.no portal.

10. How do you change your company name in Norway? Does it mean additional costs?

To change a company's name, you must use the document previously used to register a business (Samordnet registermelding BR1010) - changing the company's data is free of charge when the business is listed only in Enhetsregisteret, if the company is also registered in Foretaksregisteret, the change will cost NOK 2,250 (electronic version) or NOK 2,832 (paper version).

11. What document is needed to change a company's name?

To change the name of a Norwegian company, you must use the document previously used to register a business - Samordnet registermelding BR1010.

12. Is it possible to run a business in Norway without having a registered address?

Running a business in Norway does not require a registered address - however, it is necessary to have a registered office in Norway. A registered address is mandatory if your planned stay is longer than six months.

13. How to suspend a company in Norway?

In Norway, a company can be "closed" - however, you should remember to keep the deadlines for filing tax returns (annual return or VAT return). In addition, the entrepreneur should pay advance payments for income tax.

14. How to apply for a start-up loan?

To take a business start-up loan it is necessary to submit a business plan and a budget - the bank will consider the application and calculate the financial risk - on this basis it will grant or deny the requested loan.

15. How much per hour can be earned in each industry?

In the industries listed by the office, workers are guaranteed minimum wages. Their amount can be checked here.

16. Can an unemployed person who receives benefits start his own business?

An unemployed person can apply to NAV, where he or she will be assisted with professional advice and possible financial support for start-up costs - the basic condition is the submission of a business plan.

17. Can one company operate in different (unrelated) fields?

All fields of activity should be included in the company's scope of activity - to make an entry of the scope of activity, the appropriate form must be filled out.

18. Is a permanent personal number necessary to establish a company in Norway?

A permanent personal number is not necessary to establish a company in Norway - an entrepreneur can have a temporary D-nummer personal number.

19. When setting up a NUF in Norway, is it necessary to translate all documents into Norwegian?

All necessary documents should be translated into Norwegian or English. Confirmation of company data abroad also requires providing an extract from the register of activities - confirmation from either KRS or CEIDG (depending on the legal form of the company).

20. Can Poles in Norway run their own business?

Any citizen of the European Union can run a business in Norway - the establishment of a company and all related fees and procedures are the same as for businesses run by Norwegians.

21. is there a list of industries in which you can do business in Norway?

Usually, Brønnøysundregistrene assigns an industry code itself - but there is a list (here). The authority assigns the company's industry code to the field that is first entered in the application, so it is a good idea to list the company's main field of activity as the first one.

BUSINESS COSTS:


1. What are business costs in Norway?

Business costs are a.k.a. company costs - any expenses that a company has incurred in order to be able to generate revenue, such as the cost of materials, machinery or equipment.

2. Can items purchased for the business be paid for in cash?

It is possible, but cash payments during the year must not exceed NOK 10,000 - only then can cash purchases be entered in the company's accounting records in Norway. For companies, a Dagsoppgjør printout is required to register cash transactions.

3. When using a private vehicle for business purposes, can gasoline and other car-related expenses be deducted?

This is only possible if you are a sole proprietor - it is necessary to keep a log book (kjørebok) - gasoline should not be deducted, only gates, ferries and parking related to business trips.

4. Can a private phone with a company subscription be included in business expenses?

The cost of calls will be a business expense only if the phone was used for business purposes - it is difficult to show calls for private and business matters, so the Norwegian authority has assumed that the amount of NOK 4392 should be withdrawn from expenses at the end of the year.

5. Can all calls from a business phone, even those made for private purposes, be included in business expenses?

There is no such possibility - only business calls can be added to business expenses - the Norwegian tax authority has provided a formula on its website for accounting for expenses for private calls.

6. Can a company car installment be included in company expenses?

A car installment is not a business expense - only interest on a loan or depreciation of a fixed asset is an expense.

7. Can lease payments be included in business expenses in Norway?

Lease payments can be treated as a business expense.

8. Can the cost of rent and electricity in a rented apartment be included in business expenses in Norway?

If a business is conducted in rented premises, the cost of rent and electricity charges are treated as business expenses - if part of the apartment is used privately, the costs should be deducted proportionally, i.e. depending on the area of the premises that is used for business purposes in relation to the area of the entire premises, the amount of costs that the company actually incurs should be calculated, e.g. if the apartment is 50m2 and the room where the office is located is 10m2, only 20% of the expenses for the apartment can be recognized as business expenses.

9. What fees are paid by a self-employed person simultaneously employed on a contract?

For such a person, the employer pays advance income tax on account of work. However, you still need to be aware of the installments for advance payments that you pay as an entrepreneur - March 15, June 15, September 15 and December 15. An entrepreneur in Norway is required to pay a fee of 22% on company profit for income tax and 11.4% on company profit for mandatory social security. The amount of the advance tax payment is calculated by the authority on the amount a person has declared. One must also remember the 25% VAT that applies to companies listed in the VAT register.

TAXES, BENEFITS:


1. What taxes apply to Norwegian entrepreneurs?

An entrepreneur pays income tax (at 22%), social security contribution (at 11.4%), VAT (MVA) (when the company is registered for VAT) on profit. In addition, companies that hire employees pay tax: on the employment of the employee - Arbeidsgiveravgift - at a rate of 14.1% to 0% (depending on the zone) and advance income tax Forskuddstrekk - depends on the Skattekort the employee receives from the office (if the employer does not receive a tax card from the employee then he is obliged to deduct 50% of the advance from the salary).

2. What should I do to get a company tax identification number?

In order to receive a company tax identification number, you must register your business with the Register of Business Entities - Enhetsregisteret. You need to send the form BR-1010 electronically (it is available at www.altinn.no) or traditionally a paper version to Brønnøysundregistrene - the office sends a confirmation of the company registration, on which the organizational number will be visible.

3. What form should I fill out at the tax office in order for the office to calculate advance tax payments for a recently registered sole proprietorship in Norway?

In order for the office to calculate advance tax payments, you must fill out the application for ordering a Norwegian tax card SØKNAD OM ENDRING AV ELLER KRAV OM SKATTEKORT - you need to provide the expected value of the company's income for the year.

4. How to pay income tax in Norway?

Norwegian income tax is paid in the form of an advance payment - payments are made four times a year (by March 15, May 15, September 15 and November 15). The Authority itself calculates the amount of advance payments based on the anticipated profit of the company given by the entrepreneur - the entrepreneur receives a giro with the installment to be paid.

5. What if the entrepreneur did not pay advance tax payments for the entire year?

If the entrepreneur has not paid advance payments of income tax, the outstanding amount of advance payments should be repaid in late April/early May of the following year - the office will send a preliminary annual return, which shows the bank account number along with the KID number (tax transfer made before May 31 will not include interest).

6. What to do if an entrepreneur has an underpayment of tax?

If an entrepreneur has an underpayment of tax, it is necessary to pay the arrears in accordance with the amount and date of repayment given by the Norwegian office in the tax return - Skatteoppgjør (interest is added to the missing amount of tax).

7. By what date should entrepreneurs file their tax return?

The deadline for filing returns for the previous tax year is May 31.

8. What is the income tax for a company that earns a substantial income?

The tax thresholds in Norway for 2021 are:

9. What is Feriepenger?

Feriepenger is a minimum of 10.2% gross of salary - a benefit intended for employee leave.

10. What is Arbeidsgiveravgift?

Arbeidsgiveravgift - ranges from 14.1% to 0% of an employee's gross salary (the rate depends on the national zone) - is a mandatory fee paid by an entrepreneur who hires employees.

11. What is Sykepenger?

Sykepenger is the equivalent of Polish sick pay - for the first 16 days of sick leave the employer pays, then NAV takes over this obligation. However, in the case of an entrepreneur, NAV pays the benefit only from the 17th day of dismissal - in order to receive the benefit from the first day of dismissal, you should take out additional insurance.

12. Does the employer withhold income tax from the wages of those employed by the company?

The employer is required to withhold advance income tax (Forskuddstrekk) from the gross salary of each employee.

13. Are the employee's income tax and Social Security fees paid monthly?

Advance income tax and Social Security fees are paid once every two months.

14. How is the pension contribution calculated when an entrepreneur is a sole proprietor?

The basic pension contribution is included in the mandatory insurance premium (11.4%).

15. Can the tax settlement be made during the year?

There is a form (RF-1038) that allows early tax settlement for a foreign employee - this can be provided by those who have been in Norway for less than 183 days in 12 months or less than 270 days in 36 months at the end of the contract.

16. What does Innskuddpensjon mean?

Innskuddpensjon is a contract between an employer and an employee in which the employer agrees to contribute a portion of the employee's salary to the employee's future pension.

17. In a sole proprietorship in Norway, should tax be paid on the entire amount of gross income?

Income tax is calculated on the amount of profit - the tax base is the difference between revenues and business expenses.

18. Is it possible to run a business and at the same time enjoy the benefits of tax class 2?

If the spouse in a given tax year earned income of less than half of the Grunnbeløp amount, the business owner is entitled to use the reliefs of the second tax class. Note: in 2018, the second tax class in Norway will be eliminated.

19. is a sole proprietor in Norway entitled to sickness benefit?

Members of the Norwegian social security system are entitled to sickness benefit - for illness, NAV pays benefit from the 17th day of sick leave. The benefit from the first day of illness is guaranteed by additional voluntary insurance.

20. Is a person who has been running a sole proprietorship for several months entitled to sickness benefit?

Sickness benefit is paid from the 17th day of sickness and is equal to 65% of the average income from the last three years of business - it can be used by all people running a business in Norway.

21. Is a business owner in Norway entitled to free medical care?

Obtaining medical advice in Norway involves paying a so-called deductible (egenandel), which is not reimbursable - its amount depends on the time of day, type and location of the visit.

22. Can tax be reduced because of a mortgage?

Interest on the loan is included in the annual return and reduces the basis according to which the tax is calculated - so you can get a larger refund of the tax paid.

23. What services are not covered by Norwegian VAT?

Health, financial, insurance and cultural services are not subject to VAT in Norway.

24. Is an entrepreneur insured?

The Norwegian social insurance system covers all persons living in Norway - every legally employed employee and business owner is a member of the Folketrygden. If an entrepreneur benefits, NAV pays the benefit from the 17th day of illness-but there is the possibility of additional insurance, which means payment of benefits from the first day of illness. You must sign an insurance contract with NAV or another insurer and pay the additional premiums under the contract.

25. Is Norwegian insurance valid in Poland?

Norwegian insurance is recognized in Poland - you must prove your membership in the Norwegian social security system by presenting one of the following documents: - EHIC (European Health Insurance Card) - the card authorizes the holder to receive medical services during a temporary stay in a country that is a member of the European Union, EEA (European Economic Area) or Switzerland. On the basis of the EHIC, its holder has the right to receive medical services on the principles applicable to residents of the country where he/she is temporarily staying. An EHIC can be obtained by a person who is a member of the Norwegian social security system and has citizenship of Norway, one of the countries of the European Union, the EEA or Switzerland. EHIC cards in Norway are issued by HELFO (Helseøkonomiforvaltningen).

- Form S1 - formerly form E-106 and E-109, which under Norwegian insurance allows access to medical services in EEA countries. The form can be obtained by persons who:
- are employed by a Norwegian employer, are self-employed in Norway or receive unemployment benefits,
- pay social security contributions or advance income tax in Norway,
- have a permanent address of residence in an EEA country (other than Norway),
- have citizenship of an EEA member state.

26. What is the giro issued to construction companies by the RVO? Is the company required to pay it?

Giro is a mandatory fee charged to companies in the construction industry - RVO's program is aimed at improving working conditions and safety, and its representatives appear at construction sites and inform about regulations on construction work. The amount of the fee depends on the number of workers employed - the minimum amount charged to companies with no employees is NOK 250. The giro is 0.03% of gross salary based on the past year.

27. How long must one run a business in Norway to qualify for maternity leave?

Maternity leave is available to women who have earned income at a level determined by the government for at least six of the ten months preceding the maternity leave.

28.Which income will be counted for maternity leave if a person works full-time and at the same time runs a business in Norway?

If an entrepreneur is simultaneously employed, all income he or she earns will be taken into account.

VAT:


1. How is VAT paid in Norway?

A business in Norway whose turnover in the following 12 months does not exceed NOK 50,000 - does not have to pay VAT. In a situation where the turnover is greater than the indicated amount, you must make an entry in the VAT register. Tax rates for branches of foreign companies (NUF) are identical to those for Norwegian companies, but the tax is paid by a representative who calculates and pays VAT in Norway on behalf of the foreign company.

2. When is the deadline for filing the annual VAT return in Norway?

For those taxpayers who have declared annual VAT, the deadline for settling the return is March 10 of the following year.

3. What is the VAT return in Norway used for?

The VAT return is used to show the amount of VAT that has flowed into the company (revenue invoices) and that has flowed out of the company (expense invoices) - the difference between these values is the amount to be paid or refunded.

4. How to check whether a company is listed in the register of VAT payers in Norway?

To check whether a company is a VAT payer, just visit the office's website: www.brreg.no and verify the status of the company in question - if the business is registered, the following information should appear there: Registrert i Merverdiavgiftsregisteret.

5. How often should an AS company in Norway pay MVA?

The frequency of paying VAT depends on the company's turnover - an AS company in Norway can pay the tax once a year if the annual turnover does not exceed NOK 1,000,000 (this option should be marked on the registration application). If the company wants to make a change, it can do so by the end of January (for the year currently in progress), but the tax authority has the right not to allow the type of settlement when the company has tax arrears.

6. Is a European TIN number necessary to buy goods in the European Union without VAT?

Norway is not a member of the European Union, which means that there is no possibility of assigning a European TIN number - to avoid unnecessary costs you can buy goods in an EU country, and at the border inform about the export of products. Individuals or companies that are not VAT pay tax on entry to Norway - companies that are registered in the VAT register only show the import in the tax return.

7. How should an invoice - issued for the sale of a service and materials (purchased for a customer) - be completed to avoid double taxation?

In a situation where the company will not make money on the materials purchased for the customer (when performing a service), you need to mark two items on the invoice: service and materials. You should calculate the cost of materials from all receipts and invoices (net and VAT amounts) that apply to the customer, and then when issuing the invoice in the item: materials, enter the corresponding amount. In addition, all expenses for purchases should be included in the company's expenses - the same amount will appear in income as in expenses, and the company will come out at zero tax.
In a situation where the company will earn money on materials, a higher value than the sum of expenses for the purchase of materials is entered in the revenue invoice - taxes will be charged on the difference between the company's income and expenses for the purchase of materials. Note that a business engaged in trade should be entered in the Foretaksregisteret.

8. How should an invoice - issued only for the VAT amount - be booked if the company charges outstanding VAT after the registration process is completed?

During the registration process for VAT payers, you can issue invoices for the net amount alone and only later (after the registration process is completed) send invoices for VAT to the respective customers for these net amounts. To post this type of invoice, you need to use accounting accounts - 1500 dt / 2700 ct. To post the payment of the outstanding amount of tax that the customer has made, you need to use accounts: 1920 dt / 1500 ct.

EMPLOYEES IN THE COMPANY:


1. Where should an employee be reported?

Every employee should register with the police and produce a tax card (Skattekort). The employer is required to report the employee through Altinn.no (print A-melding) - a company that employs employees should be registered with NAV Aa-registeret.

2. When is an employee reported to NAV?

The employee should be reported to NAV no later than Friday of the following week after the first week of work.

3. What is the cost of hiring an employee in Norway?

The cost of hiring an employee is divided into fixed costs and variable costs. Fixed costs are a total of about 26.3% on the gross salary amount, and variable costs are about 5% on the gross salary amount. Fixed costs are Arbeidsgiveravgift (employment fee), OTP pension insurance, feriepenger. Variable costs depend on the scope of the company's activities - they relate to sickness benefits, accident insurance, training necessary for the job, work clothes, etc.

4. Does an entrepreneur in Norway pay for periodic examinations of employees?

The employer is not obliged to pay for periodic examinations of employees - the fees are voluntary. However, in some industries regular examinations are necessary, in which case the employer should enter into an agreement with a medical unit and cover the costs of these examinations.

5. Does the legislation stipulate what should be in employee files?

Norwegian regulations do not regulate the maintenance of personnel files - they do not specify the documents that should be in them.

6. Who is responsible for maintaining employee files?

The file is maintained by the accountant of the respective company.

7. Can Daglig Leder employ a spouse in the sole proprietorship he runs?

Employing a spouse is not possible - the solution is to run the company jointly without reporting such a change to the authority. It is necessary to fill out an application for a tax card - in the annual tax return, the previous year's income must be divided between the spouses.

INVOICES:


1. What should a Norwegian invoice contain?

A Norwegian invoice should contain: the invoice number, the company's organizational number (the "MVA" symbol at the end indicates that the company is a VAT payer), the date of the invoice, the due date, the seller's details (company name and address), the buyer's details (name/company name, address), the seller's bank account number, the net, VAT and gross price of the goods/services.

2. When can you start invoicing in Norway?

The company should be registered with Brønnøysundregistrene - the entrepreneur will receive confirmation of the company's registration and the organizational number necessary to establish a company bank account. Once the company has started operations, it can start issuing invoices.

3. Does the numbering of invoices reset each year?

Invoice numbering is continuous - this means that in the new year the numbering from the previous year must be continued.

4. Should new numbers be assigned to customers from the new year?

The customer number is permanent and does not change over time.

5. Is it possible for an unemployed person with a work permit and tax card to issue invoices without having a company in Norway?

Having a company in Norway is necessary to be able to issue invoices - you must have a Norwegian organization number.

PERMITS:


1. Is a permit necessary to establish a cleaning company in Norway?

Cleaning companies are required to have an Authorization (Godkjenning) issued by the Norwegian Labour Inspectorate. In addition, each company employee and owner should have a Renholdskort ID.

2. How do I check if a company has a permit from the Norwegian Labor Inspectorate?

Information about the granting of a permit can be found on the website of the Norwegian Labor Inspectorate - the status should be set to Godkjent.

3. Should the owner of a construction company in Norway provide Byggekort badges to his employees?

Providing Byggekort to construction workers is the responsibility of the owners of the companies they work for - it is the employer who should equip each employee with an ID badge and monitor its validity (up to two years).

4. What is the Byggekort that every construction worker should have?

In Norway, construction companies are required to equip employees with Byggekort badges (issued by Idemia Norway AS, and in previous years it was Oberthur Technologies). The badges contain basic information about the cardholder to help identify him or her.

5. How do I renew my Byggekort construction card?

Byggekort can be extended using the website: www.byggekort.no - the ID and password established during the first login is necessary.

6. What kind of construction work can be performed in-house without completing special courses?

Some construction work requires confirmation of the employee's qualifications (electrical work or work at heights), but you can perform simple construction work without confirmation of skills in the form of completion of special courses.

7. What requirements must be met to establish an auto repair shop in Norway?

In order to set up a car repair shop in Norway, you must have special permits for certain activities, including air conditioning repair, electronics and sheet metal services, and most importantly, recognition of the profession of car mechanic. Permits are not required if the services performed in the workshop are not related to safety.

8. When starting a cosmetics business in Norway, do you have to meet special requirements?

In order to start a cosmetics-related business, it is necessary to obtain a permit from the municipality where the business is to be conducted - it is also necessary to meet a number of strict sanitary requirements.

9. How can løyvekurs be completed?

To obtain a transport permit, you must apply to the appropriate municipality and complete a course.